Workplace training: types, methods, and organization of the process
On-the-job training is more than just getting a new employee up to speed. It may also apply to long-term staff to improve their qualifications or professional skills.
The manager must evaluate the pros and cons of organizing a continuous employee training process. If it is decided to implement, an order will have to be issued, and the employees and the courses they must complete will have to be selected.
The essence of employee training in the workplace
On-the-job training is one of the methods of employee development in which a person performs professional tasks and, at the same time, improves their competence. The company saves on study holidays, scholarships, employee travel, etc. At the same time, the employee needs to be paid at the average hourly rate during the training process.
Consider the benefits that different categories of workers receive from on-the-job training.
- stabilization of the company’s activities;
- continuous production process training;
- combination of the profession;
- cost reduction.
- professional development of employees;
- introduction of new technologies;
- improvement of professional qualities;
- expansion of the area of responsibility;
- replenishment of the personnel reserve.
- professional management development;
- replenishment of the personnel reserve;
- optimization of activities of departments and business processes;
- the possibility of delegation of authority.
On-the-job training of employees requires certain financial investments. Therefore, you need to calculate the benefit that the company will receive and correlate it with the required costs.
Advantages and disadvantages of on-the-job training
Each form of education has its pros and cons. To choose the best option, you need to consider all the nuances. In some cases, on-the-job training will not be profitable. You will need to create an effective internal staff development system. In addition, managers will need to have enough free time to train employees.
- Independence. The company becomes more resistant to external factors.
- Economy. You need a relatively small financial investment to train employees in the workplace.
- Flexible schedule. The time of the training sessions can be adjusted to the production schedule.
- Possibility of receiving additional consultations. An employee can contact a mentor at any time during training.
- Ability to take into account the specifics of the company. The characteristics of a particular organization develop the training program. Thanks to this, employees can immediately use the acquired skills.
- Professional development of internal consultants. Mentors can hone their skills while teaching others.
- Mentors and internal consultants may need to gain the necessary competencies to train staff.
- Employees must acquire knowledge and skills that cannot be used in their work.
- The training sessions may be terminated at any time if the mentor is assigned other tasks.
Thus, on-the-job training provides an opportunity to reduce company costs. However, this can only be achieved if the system of personnel development is properly organized. On-the-job training is most beneficial for new hires. Staff adaptation times will be reduced. In addition, the percentage of marriage will decrease.
Types of on-the-job training
Please note that the company must be licensed for on-the-job training to be certified or credentialed. However, a license is optional if you are developing personnel without issuing supporting documents.
There are three main types of vocational training in the workplace:
- Employee training. This form of training is organized if employees need to acquire new skills and knowledge required to perform additional tasks.
- Retraining. Such training is necessary when mastering a new profession or specialty. In addition, employees must undergo retraining when the requirements for their position change.
- Professional development. Necessary in case of increasing qualification requirements for the profession. Such training is especially useful when an employee moves to a higher professional level.
Professional retraining and advanced training are two completely different types of training. Consider the main differences:
- Professional development aims to obtain new competencies required to perform work tasks. At the same time, the employee improves within the framework of his existing qualifications. During professional retraining, a person acquires the competencies needed to perform completely different tasks within the framework of a new qualification.
- The advanced training program is based on the norms of professional standards and qualification reference books. In addition to the above, the retraining program considers the requirements of federal and state standards for secondary vocational and higher education.
All these types of training can be organized both in the workplace and outside it. Personnel development within the organization assumes that teachers will be experienced employees. Professional trainers and mentors act as teachers if the training is conducted outside the company.
Basic methods of employee training in the workplace
All methods of training in the workplace have one common goal – the professional development of employees. However, there are some differences between them. To choose the best option, it is necessary to determine the specific tasks of training and take into account the specifics of the method and the characteristics of a single employee.
Keep in mind that there are more and more training and development methods in the workplace every year, so this is a partial list.
Step-by-step organization of staff training at the workplace
To organize training of employees in the workplace, it is necessary to perform several important steps:
- Development of regulations on staff training. You need to describe in detail the goals, forms, and methods of personnel development. If employees see only the general concept of training, then their motivation will decrease. In addition, you need to determine the budget that will be allocated for training. Calculate all items of future expenses.
- Develop an on-the-job training plan. You need to list all employees due to complete educational programs shortly. Make a study schedule. Approve the developed plan by order.
- Creation of individual and group training programs. When developing programs, it is necessary to consider the results of evaluation activities (for example, certification) and all legal norms. In addition, you need to follow some basic guidelines:
- Explain to employees what strengths and weaknesses they have. Every employee must be motivated to learn.
- Align the interests of the employee with the interests of the company.
- Decide on the direction and purpose of learning.
- Choose the most effective learning tools.
- Set deadlines within which all staff development tasks must be completed.
- Updating job descriptions by modern professional standards and the competencies employees will obtain after completing the training.
- Development of a regulation on the formation and training of a personnel reserve.
- Training of heads of departments and employees who will train staff. They must be directed to appropriate courses and external trainers hired to increase their competence.
Formal and informal staff training
Formal learning is structured learning with specific timelines, goals, and objectives. For example, courses, lectures, seminars, master classes, and training. Through formal training, a person must independently fulfill the assigned tasks.
Informal learning is a method in which a person acquires new knowledge and skills directly during everyday tasks. At the same time, the terms of training are not limited in any way, and the goals are not formally defined.
For example, on-the-job training – mentoring, mentoring social learning. In this case, the student must not perform any specific actions. The informal method assumes that people can develop their competencies in communicating with colleagues and solving ordinary professional problems.
The 70:20:10 model is a corporate learning organization model was developed in 1996. Its creator is the American researcher Morgan McCall. This specialist and colleagues from the Center for Creative Leadership wrote the book “The Career Architect Development Planner.” This model is used in many large companies. For example, Hewlett Packard and Mars.
With this learning method, skill development is mostly done through daily practice and teamwork with more qualified employees. 70% of the time is used to gain experience directly in the workplace. 20% of the time is devoted to teamwork (mentoring, coaching, tutoring, etc.). The remaining 10% of learning outcomes are achieved through classical methods (courses, e-learning, seminars, etc.).
In this case, the company can distribute the proportions of formal and non-formal learning differently. For example, Sberbank uses the 60:20:20 model. Following this concept, employees receive formal training 20% of the time. This is explained by constantly changing market conditions, and universities do not have time to update their educational programs. Consequently, former students must acquire the necessary knowledge and skills after getting a job.
Please note that the above learning models are often criticized. The fact is that they are based not on objective empirical data but on the experience of specific authors. However, informal on-the-job training is essential for staff development.