The transfer of knowledge at any level involves the use of teaching methods. It is communication between the teacher and the students. And what technique is used for a given interaction ultimately determines the variety of ways.
Active or passive, traditional or interactive… The more methods involved in the learning process, the more effectively the information will be assimilated.
What are the teaching methods?
The term “teaching method” can be understood differently, but in most cases, it means how the teacher interacts with students in the learning process. There is another meaning that more fully reflects its essence. The teaching method expands knowledge about the world around you, allowing you to learn the truth.
Teaching methods began to appear even in the era when knowledge was transferred from older community members to the younger generation. Over the years, they have undergone significant changes:
- The emergence of a new kind of activity – a teacher.
- The emergence of writing replaced oral speech.
- Beginning of typography.
- Transition to the use of computer systems in teaching.
Method, methodology, methodology, techniques… These concepts describe the learning process, but there are differences between them.
Teaching methods are usually divided into techniques. By itself, the technique does not allow you to achieve the goal, but it is thanks to the techniques that the method leads to the desired result. Let’s assume that the method of working with a book consists of the following methods:
- reading aloud;
- filling the table with data from the text;
- schematic representation of the material;
- citation search.
Depending on the situation, the same method is implemented through different techniques. For example, working with a book may involve either reading aloud and making an outline, sketching the material and looking for citations, or taking notes.
To implement the methods and techniques of teaching in practice, it is necessary to provide students with items such as textbooks or special devices.
Standard teaching methods are usually divided into verbal, visual, practical, and combined methods. Let’s consider them in more detail.
Verbal teaching methods
They are the most common active teaching methods, contribute to the rapid assimilation of voluminous material by students, develop their creative and analytical abilities, and the ability to present the big picture.
Reveals the meaning of terms or processes. It is a monologue where the teacher substantiates important statements and answers questions about the lesson.
The explanation must contain the following elements:
- disclosure of causal relationships;
- comparisons and analogies;
- bright examples;
- logic expositions.
A separate topic is presented point by point. Unlike an explanation, a story takes the form of a narrative and contains a description of various situations. As a rule, the story characterizes characters and real people and provides interesting information. Other verbal methods can supplement the story.
The essential elements of a story are:
- instructive conclusions;
- illustrative examples confirming the integrity of the presentation;
- logic and consistency of presentation;
- teacher’s personal opinion.
Learning takes place in the form of a dialogue. The teacher asks questions in a certain order so the students can understand and consolidate the material covered. This verbal method is used most often.
- memory development;
- activation of thinking;
- educational impact;
- verification of mastery of the material.
- questions should be short and clear;
- questions should be meaningful;
- questions should lead to independent reasoning.
- takes a lot of time;
- If there are erroneous conclusions, misinterpretation by students is possible;
- Ambiguous questions and questions that provide options for an answer are excluded (for example, you need to answer “yes” or “no”).
This is a conversation during which the student and the teacher exchange opinions based on the received idea about the topic under study.
- development of thinking;
- development of the ability to indicate one’s position;
- formation of competent, persuasive speech;
- Educational function.
- To participate in the discussion, students must be ready to be active and act independently;
- It is necessary to carry out preliminary activities (outline the text material, draw independent conclusions, conduct clarifications, etc.)
This teaching method consistently presents the material, and conclusions are drawn. Unlike the story, there is a scientific approach and maximum information content.
- It is possible to report all information related to the topic in a short time;
- When selecting material, various sources are used;
- The lecture may include information not found in textbooks, criticisms, and interesting and illustrative examples.
- The lecture should take place according to a certain plan;
- The facts presented must be supported by examples and substantiated;
- It is necessary to focus listeners’ attention on the topic under consideration (periodically asking questions, commenting, and talking about their experience). Otherwise, they will remember the material worse.
At the end of the lecture, independent work should be carried out so that students can check the assimilation of the material and come to their own opinion, expanding their horizons.
This method of vocational training involves consolidating the material discussed in the lecture. Here, students independently find and share information; the teacher brings up various questions for discussion, and all participants exchange opinions.
To conduct a seminar, you must first perform several actions: the teacher draws up a plan and gives the students time to consider it, and they, accordingly, study the information on the specified topic.
During the event, the teacher strives for the participants to discuss with each other, and at the final stage, summarizes the findings, evaluates the work done, and comments on what issues must be paid attention to.
An effective teaching method combines oral and visual presentations that promote better familiarization with the topic.
- Should give new knowledge and increase responsibility;
- Should be carried out in accordance with the plan, beginning with setting a goal and ending with a summing up and generalization of the knowledge gained.
Visual teaching methods
Visual methods are effective only when appropriate tools and visual examples are available.
This teaching method uses a graphical representation (maps, drawings, graphs, etc.) to present the material.
The learning process should be associated with the experimental consideration of a physical object, watching films, etc.
Requirements for visual teaching methods:
- Visual material is shown at the right time;
- Each student must be involved in the work;
- Visual material should be selected taking into account the age of the students;
- Visual material must fully comply with the theory;
- Students should be able to navigate visual material and search.
Practical teaching methods
The purpose of these teaching methods is a deeper assimilation of the material while performing certain actions.
Regular completion of assignments on the topic under study.
Oral exercises serve the development of thought processes, memory, and concentration. Written exercises are necessary for better memorization of the material and for acquiring practical skills. Graphic exercises contribute to the development of three-dimensional imagination.
They allow students to realize their creative potential and give an idea of independent work in writing essays, reviews, and essays.
Students conduct independent research under the supervision of a teacher using special instruments and instruments.
Practical methods are especially often used for self-consolidating new material; basically, they complete the passage of a separate large topic.
Auxiliary methods of the learning process
During training, students develop the skills to reproduce the acquired knowledge; they learn to use them in practice.
The explanatory-illustrative method is considered optimal for conveying the experience orderly. In short, the student perceives the information given by the teacher.
Reproductive method – independent actions by the existing template.
Students acquire knowledge through the creative process.
Heuristic (partial search) and research methods compensate for the need for more creativity.
To achieve the result, the main problems are identified and solved according to the following plan:
- Creating a problem.
- Convert to one or more tasks.
Productive methods have certain nuances in connection with which they cannot be considered a priority. The submission of material should be carried out by reproductive methods, and research and search only supplement it.
- Oral or written survey.
- Working with cards.
- Independent work.
- Laboratory work.
- Practical work.
- Test tasks.
Control methods can be applied separately, but almost always, they are part of organizational methods. This is indicated, among other things, by the functions they perform.
- Clarification of the importance of learning for the individual and society.
- To develop in students a sense of duty and responsibility.
Stimulation methods in the learning process have the advantage that the student shows personal interest. Usually, stimulation affects students’ individual characteristics, preferences, and character traits.
Modern teaching methods
Training is a group activity during which students develop practical skills. Only 20-30% of the time is devoted to theory study, but mostly there is problem-solving and intense group work. Often lectures are organized in the form of training.
Training is often considered the best option for overcoming difficulties, creating a favorable atmosphere, and engaging in the learning process.
The essence of the project method is the independent setting of the goal by the students and determining the ways to achieve it. They must search, select, summarize, and analyze information while the teacher provides support, clarification, and advice.
The project method is aimed at developing the following qualities in students:
- independent determination and achievement of the goal;
- work with information;
- practical application of acquired knowledge;
- Ability to conduct research and present results.
The project can be carried out individually or in a group; teamwork skills are also developed in the second case.
With this teaching method, situations related to the topic under consideration that can occur in reality are studied and analyzed. Here, students develop the ability to use theoretical knowledge in practice, to give a fair assessment of the problem based on their competence, and to express and justify their opinion. The solution of the case consists in analyzing the conditional situation and finding the optimal course of action.
Using the method means that the teacher is an expert in his field, and the students understand the subject being studied well.
Coaching is an interaction with a mentor who can be both a teacher and a more successful student. For coaching, the priority is not the overall development but the achievement of specific goals.
The mentor should help the student find the best way to solve the problem. With its help, the student determines in which areas his inclinations are manifested and learns to develop in these directions.
The method consists of a group discussion of the identified problem, where everyone can share their thoughts. First, the teacher poses a question and explains the order of work. Then the students formulate their proposals and discuss them with the whole team.
The method contributes to the achievement of the following goals:
- Increasing student interest.
- Transition from theory to practice.
- The accelerated passage of material.
- Development of creative inclinations and concentration of attention.
- Development of skills for solving non-standard problems.
- Encouragement to mental activity.
- Involvement in teamwork.
Various situations related to the topic under study are simulated during a business game. Thanks to this, it becomes possible to use theoretical conclusions in practice.
The business game allows you to solve the following tasks:
- Acquisition by students of the necessary experience and abilities.
- The study of various processes.
- Implementation of new methods.
- Creation of permanent and temporary teams.
- Reducing the risk of errors.
- Development of communicative qualities.
An educational game differs from a business game in that it involves performing a specific task in the learning process.
The educational game is characterized by the following:
- Simulation is a game representation of a real situation.
- The presence of a problem – students should not only imagine a picture but also reflect on how to act.
- Joint activities – all students should participate in the discussion; they must express their viewpoints and acquire teamwork skills.
An educational game can be held before the start of training to determine the degree of preparation of students. It can also take place at the end of training to consolidate the learned material and show how to use it in real life.
The immersion method is commonly used in language learning. Its author proposes to influence the subconscious. In other words, for a person to desire to learn, he should be constantly encouraged to do so.
To quickly learn a language, it is necessary to communicate regularly with native speakers. In our time, this method is being used in other areas, with usually organized traveling conferences.
Advanced learning method
When creating this methodology, the following principles were used:
- Accompanying learning with comments, for example, pronunciation of what is written.
- The use of reference schemes, based on which the student forms his sentences.
- Perspective learning is the performance of tasks that are not included in the curriculum.
- Gradual study of large topics as the material becomes more complex.
Particular attention should be paid to the application of knowledge in practice.
The essence of this method is that students must solve individual problems in a certain order and, thus, gradually move toward the goal.
At the same time, a logical transition to more complex topics should be achieved. It is desirable to involve a variety of methods: brainstorming, group discussion, etc.
A mind map is a plan based on a priority task, from which smaller subtasks follow. This method makes it possible to trace how the main topic relates to individual issues. Mind maps contribute to quick and high-quality assimilation of the material and easy perception of complex concepts. With their help, you can develop and implement projects, learn languages, create a work schedule, etc.
The method of mythologems involves the search for a non-standard way out of the presented situation, which can happen. When applied, a fictional and simultaneously plausible story is described. Students acquire the skills of creative activity, develop their imagination, and experience decreases due to real problems.
However, well-thought-out courses of action can lead to undesirable results.
The synectics method is associated with making analogies and figurative comparisons to achieve a result. Usually, this is accompanied by an intensification of the intellect. It means that the teacher needs to use his distinctive abilities.
Here, students can act as they see fit. They can select the material themselves, create models and draw logical conclusions. Concluding conclusions other than the standard ones may be accepted if justification is provided.
The teaching methods currently used are very diverse. However, among them, one can single out passive methods, where the main role is assigned to the teacher, and interactive methods, which involve the participation of students. All pedagogical teaching methods are used in all forms of educational activities.
Innovative teaching methods in the 21st century
These include modern teaching methods that have proven effective in the current environment. They are based on completely original concepts as well as improved traditional techniques. A characteristic common feature of these methods is the use of computer technology. In addition, they completely exclude the sole leadership of the teacher; he must build business relationships with students.
Varieties of these methods:
- Competence-based method – its goal is to develop skills and abilities that can be useful. In the course of practical exercises, situations are considered that are most relevant to the work of specialists.
- Numerous integrated teaching methods, when classes take place in an unusual form (auction, labyrinth, travel, business meeting, educational conference, expedition, exhibition, dramatization, experiment). In an unfamiliar environment, students show more interest and focus more easily.
- Design and research method. Students pair up or form groups, then a difficult situation is presented that needs to be resolved within the allotted time, which will probably require special tools.
- Modern methods of presenting information (writing reviews, recording video reviews, storytelling, etc.)
- Classes using information and communication technologies, including application software, electronic dictionaries, interactive maps, and other tools.
Basic Distance Learning Methods
With this teaching method, interaction with the teacher is carried out through computer technology. The teacher must be proficient in network tools to organize the learning process. Practical tasks for students should be selected, considering the computer’s technical characteristics. Introducing new technologies should take place in stages, allowing students to focus on the learning process.
These interactive methods generally correspond to the established ones; only the training is online.
- Videoconferences in the form of lectures and seminars. Students interact with the teacher with the help of modern services, like Zoom and its analogs.
- Online discussions.
- Individual and group consultations. The teacher answers questions that arise when solving problems via chat and e-mail.
- Remote laboratory classes and testing.
- Trainers with remote access. The teacher sends students links to resources where they complete assignments and then evaluates the result.
- Video recordings of lectures and practical exercises.
- Quizzes, quizzes, and tournaments.
- Collective work of students and teachers with software.
Features of the choice of methods for organizing training
The choice of teaching methods is often a difficult task for an inexperienced teacher. For this, the following criteria must be taken into account:
- Optimality. Each method serves specific purposes, so the curriculum should guide the choice of method.
- Age and individual characteristics of students. In particular, schoolchildren like to learn more about business and role-playing games.
- Psychological features. So, when working in a group, team skills are better developed; in teaching humanitarian subjects, attention should be paid to conducting collective discussions.
- Evidence. Make sure that the chosen method has already been successfully used in practice.
At the heart of any teaching method are various components – methodological techniques, which suggest the most rational choice. About methods, techniques occupy a lower position. The same teaching method may include different techniques, and the same techniques may occur in different methods. Due to the techniques, the uniqueness of the methods used in the learning process is achieved.