IT professions: list, requirements for specialists, education options

IT professions are in demand today more than ever. Digital technologies are constantly evolving, in connection with which not only the demand for experts in this field is growing, but also new, previously non-existent specialties regularly appear.

The list of IT professions is very large; there are dozens of them now. These are programmers and testers, system analysts and web designers, database architects, and game developers. It is difficult for an unprepared person to navigate this list, but we will try to sort everything out.

The main functions of IT specialists

The abbreviation IT (IT) hides the English phrase Information Technology – information technology.

This is a common name for all activities related to creating, storing, processing, and using electronic data. An IT specialist is a concept that gives a very rough idea of ​​a person’s occupation. Approximately the same can be understood from the statement, “I have something to do with medicine.”

The speaker can be a doctor, an insurance company employee, or a pharmacist. There are a lot of professions related to IT, besides their list is constantly growing.

IT specialists are also called those who create new programs, those who understand the structure of computers, and those who can establish the smooth operation of a large number of networked machines. Conventionally, all those employed in the field of information technology can be divided into several groups:

  1. Developers and testers, designers and designers. Representatives of these IT professions are engaged in creating software and launching websites, applications, digital services, and other products.
  2. System administrators, DevOps, high-level developers, and other IT engineers. They solve the tasks of creating and maintaining the company’s information infrastructure.
  3. Project managers and product managers occupy leadership positions. Their functions include drafting technical specifications, analyzing the product, identifying its weaknesses, designing, monitoring work implementation, and meeting the schedule.
  4. SEO specialists, SMM managers, and other professionals involved in Internet marketing. Together with designers, developers, and testers, they promote and improve existing applications, programs, and services.
IT professions
IT specialist

Is the list incomplete? The full list of IT professions includes dozens of items. We offer you a closer look at IT specialists’ main areas of activity.

IT professions in software development

  • Timlid

This is the head of the development team involved in creating a digital product. He is responsible for solving the tasks of each stage, meeting deadlines, strictly following subordinates to a certain vector of work, correcting errors, and reporting. The team leader interacts with the customer and presents him with the intermediate results of the team’s activities and the final product.

  • Systems Analyst

The duties of this specialist include market research development of software requirements to the customer’s needs. The object of attention of a system analyst is business processes, for the automation of which he draws up technical specifications and tests software.

  • Database developer

In addition to creating databases, he is responsible for their implementation, modernization, and ongoing maintenance.

  • Front end developer

A professional who determines how the application or site will look to the user. Responsible for the “cover” of the digital product and developing the interface.

  • Back-end developer

Creates “stuffing” sites and applications. His area of ​​responsibility is what is hidden from the eyes of the user, but ensures the smooth operation of the IT product.

  • Programmer

Develops software based on the requirements put forward by the customer. The scope of these professionals is very extensive, so there are many narrow specializations.

  • Embedded programmer

Develops and implements software. The peculiarity lies in that each stage of work is accompanied by testing the created software.

  • Java, Python, C#, C++, JavaScript, Kotlin programmers

Work on applications using specific programming languages. The functions of these specialists also include verification, implementation, and adaptation of digital products, for example, their Russification.

  • PHP programmer

It creates websites and applications for online stores, marketplaces, hotel booking services, online learning platforms, and so on, and integrates them.

  • Ruby programmer

Responsible for technical support of various systems creation of databases, operating systems, and applications. His duties often include testing his own programs and setting tasks for other development team members.

  • Mobile Developer

Specializes in applications and software for mobile devices – tablets and smartphones. There are two types of such professionals: those who create software for the IOS OS and the Android OS.

  • Software Tester

Controls the finished digital product’s compliance with its requirements and checks the software for bugs.

  • Game developer
IT professions
IT specialist

Develops games:

  • Writes code.
  • Creates an interface and a visual component.
  • Approves the general concept.
  • Is responsible for the work of all specialists involved in creating the game.

IT professions in marketing

  • web programmer

The leading role among Internet marketing specialists belongs to a web programmer. He creates new sites and services, engages in their content, and changes existing information products.

  • SEO Specialist

It depends on this professional how successfully search engines will promote the sites. To do this, the resources are optimized so that Google or Yandex show them to the user on the first page of the issue and, even better – on the top lines. A competent SEO specialist achieves the maximum number of transitions to the company’s website based on the results of search queries.

  • SMM specialist

Social networks are one of the most effective sales tools today. An SMM specialist is responsible for maintaining a profile and promoting a brand on these sites. His responsibilities include:

  • Interacting with subscribers.
  • Creating a friendly atmosphere in the company account.
  • Maintaining interest in the product.
  • Content manager

The brand website should be relevant, interesting, and visually appealing. The content manager monitors the filling of the resource in cooperation with the editor, designer, copywriter, and layout designer. Its task is to track the interests of users and place materials on the resource that can satisfy their needs.

  • Link builder

A narrow specialist forms the link profile of the site. Together with a web developer and a copywriter, he ensures that many potential buyers come to the site through links posted on forums, social networks, and other resources.

  • Link-manager

This specialist also works with links but in a different way. Website promotion is carried out by buying, selling, and exchanging links.

  • Usabilityist

Users appreciate sites with a user-friendly interface. A usability specialist is responsible for its creation.

  • Web analyst

Internet platforms are created for a specific purpose, most often to attract the attention of potential product consumers. A web analyst collects and studies data on how well other professionals have done their job.

  • Targetologist

A professional who promotes a product or service by showing ads to a target audience. The value of targeting lies in selecting millions of users of exactly the group most likely to be interested in the product.

  • A contextologist

When an ad with an offer of a product/service corresponds to the content of the page being viewed, this is the result of the work of a contextual advertising specialist.

IT professions in design

  • Architect VR

A professional, thanks to which the user perceives virtual reality as a complete analog of reality.

  • Computer game writer

The screenwriter’s responsibility is to create the game’s plot, the characters’ historical characters, and the description of the events taking place. He also writes the dialogue between the characters.

  • Game designer

Engaged in the visual embodiment of the scenario: determines how the game locations and characters will look and how convenient the interface will be. It depends on the designer’s imagination of what picture gamers will see.

  • 3D animator

A specialist who makes the characters and objects in the game move. Responsible for the realistic movement of three-dimensional heroes and vehicles.

  • Flash animator

Creates moving objects using Adobe flash for cartoons, videos, simple games, and applications.

  • web designer

The result of the work of this professional is a well-thought-out website structure with easy navigation, an extensive set of functions, and a competent interface. It selects the background and fonts and determines the icons’ appearance, size, and location.

  • UX designer

A person who determines the user’s comfort when working with an application or digital service. He thinks through a logical interface that anyone can understand without further explanation.

IT professions in administration

  • Corporate Architect

Fully develops the structure of corporate software and also controls its performance. His responsibility is the creation and functioning of the finished product following the planned tasks.

  • Database architect

The scope of activity of the owner of this IT profession includes the choice of data storage technology, the product’s implementation, and its improvement. In addition, he is responsible for monitoring processes and developing tasks for the team.

  • DBA

Provides maintenance, population, security, and proper use of databases.

  • Site Administrator

Monitors the work of the resource, fixes fixed errors, guarantees the safety of the site, protection against viruses and hacks.

  • ERP programmer

Creates a system for managing company resources, implements it and adjusts the specifics and scale of the business. The task of an ERP programmer is to ensure the correct functioning of the system and automation of the interaction process between employees of the enterprise.

  • Cyber ​​Security Specialist

The area of ​​responsibility of a representative of this sought-after profession includes protecting the system from hackers and quickly eliminating the consequences of hacking if it did occur.

  • System Administrator

Among such a specialist’s official duties are monitoring computers connected to a network, updating the system, and detecting and correcting bugs.

  • Data Scientist

Important business decisions are made based on the results of studying a large amount of data. A data scientist analyzes information and predicts the consequences of certain company development steps.

  • Information resource specialist

The essence of the profession is to create and promote various Internet projects. Such a specialist is responsible for disseminating resource information and establishing interaction with users in the company’s interests.

IT and applied technologies

  • Bioinformatics

Reliable scientific conclusions require the preliminary processing of huge amounts of information. Today, machine tools for collecting and analyzing data are actively used in medicine and biology. A bioinformatician specializes in the study of statistical information and also develops and implements automated research methods in this area.

  • Computational linguist

Algorithms for recognizing written and sound speech developed by this specialist is used to create automatic translators and online dictionaries. The help of a computational linguist is sought in the development of chatbots, voice assistants, and QA systems.

  • BI architect

This technician helps businesses make informed decisions by concisely providing the information they need for work using specialized software.

  • Agrocybernetics

One of the IT professions of the future aimed at introducing technological advances into agriculture to automate production processes in the industry.

  • Quant developer

The name of the specialty is translated as “quantitative developer.” This is a programmer involved in developing algorithms and models for trading securities. He conducts statistical research and determines the prospects for concluding exchange transactions.

  • Data Mining Specialist

A professional searching for information from huge amounts of data determines the degree of its value based on the task assigned to him. His responsibilities include monitoring, analyzing, and interpreting various information and finding the best solutions for the business.

  • IT recruiter

Unlike a regular HR manager, this employee does not post a vacancy while waiting for responses but instead searches for suitable IT specialists for companies. The industry’s personnel shortage is high, but the employer is interested in a competent professional who will demand reasonable wages. The recruiter finds suitable candidates that meet the requirements of the customer.

Latest IT market trends

The pandemic has forced many employers to arrange remote work for their employees. After the restrictions were lifted, the trend continued. It is profitable for companies to hire programmers without providing them with obligatory office space and for IT specialists from the regions to work for a large corporation without spending money on living in the capital.

Jobs for DevOps engineers are on the rise as more companies seek to automate all production phases. Developers, testers, and data analysts can also choose employers due to the ongoing shortage of such employees.

The most relevant topic in the IT industry is import substitution. There is a great need for domestic digital products that should replace those lost due to sanctions. There is a growing focus on cybersecurity: the servers of government agencies and the media are increasingly being attacked by hackers.

Pros and cons of an IT profession

Let’s start with the advantages that these specialties have a lot of.

  1. Opportunity to earn decent money. For many, a good salary is the main reason for choosing a profession. Information technology is a field of activity where income is consistently kept at a high level and increases as new skills are acquired, and the employee’s functionality expands.
  2. A large number of vacancies. The market demands specialists in various IT areas, and this demand will only grow shortly. In addition, in this industry, you can always master a scarce profession, relying on basic knowledge.
  3. Absence of exhausting physical activity. Your workplace will be comfortable and your muscles relaxed. You will have to strain your brains, so they must work at full strength.
  4. Freedom from mandatory office visits. New generation companies value not working hours at the workplace but the result. And where exactly you will solve the tasks, the management is less important. Remote work in the IT industry is very popular; many programmers carry out projects thousands of kilometers away for employers.
  5. Constant training, replenishment of the baggage of professional knowledge, advanced training, and deep immersion in the specialty.
  6. Possibility to cooperate with several employers at the same time. Freelance IT specialists can be employed in various projects, including related areas. This is the best option for those who do not tolerate monotony in work and life.
  7. A wide circle of contacts, a chance to declare yourself an excellent specialist, and work with customers who came through word of mouth.

Even in demanded new professions, there are also disadvantages:

  1. Irregular working day. Get ready for rush jobs, deadlines, brainstorming, and sleepless nights.
  2. Constant mental stress. Emotional burnout, problems with the nervous system, and mental disorders are not uncommon among IT professionals.
  3. Sedentary lifestyle. The constant presence in the chair, even the most ergonomic, negatively affects the physical condition. Programmers experience a lack of movement, so they need classes in the gym, long walks, and outdoor activities.

Necessary qualities for an IT specialist

People with the following character traits and skills are more likely to take place in the profession:

  • Sociability. Establishing contact with customers, employers, and colleagues helps to gain a reputation as a specialist who is easy to deal with.
  • The ability for teamwork. It is not enough to be sociable; you need to hear others and convey your opinion to them, defend your point of view and recognize the successes of others.
  • Flexibility. Owners of IT professions are often faced with the need to join a new project or master an actual specialty quickly. Hence, the willingness to change and adapt to current conditions is valuable.
  • An unconventional way of looking at things. A creative approach to solving tasks allows you to avoid marking time, makes an employee’s work product, and helps to achieve excellent results.
  • Ability to take responsibility . Initiative and the ability to propose and implement interesting ideas are valued more than the simple execution of functions.
  • Self-organization. The time management skill is especially useful for those who independently master the IT profession from scratch and freelancers and specialists involved in several projects simultaneously.
  • Developed logical thinking. The ability to be critical of one’s own and other people’s proposals and impartially evaluate options for achieving goals in terms of effectiveness and practicality are useful qualities that allow you to reach professional heights quickly.
  • Ability to present ideas and results of work competently. You can devise an ingenious solution to a problem and still not convey your idea to the customer.
IT professions
IT specialist

The listed qualities are included in the soft skills that help build a career as an IT specialist but need to be more basic for successfully mastering the profession. Competences from the category of mandatory (hard skills) are determined by a specific direction of the IT sphere; therefore, before proceeding with the pumping of certain skills, it is necessary to determine the specialty.

So, a programmer must be able to code and create databases, and it is more important for a product manager to understand what features of a future product will help to beat competitors.

Specialization Tips

Suppose you decide that all the best professions are concentrated in the information technology industry. But where to start? How to become a part of this community and acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to do an interesting and highly-paid business?

Choose the right specialty.

Mobile development or front-end is suitable for those interested in graphics. People who enjoy understanding the nuances of coding create the backend. Those who dream of the glory of the progenitor of a popular game should know the engines well – Unity (C #) or Unreal Engine (C ++).

Familiarize yourself with the requirements and conditions of work

Having decided on an approximate direction, you should understand in detail what requirements recruiters put forward for candidates. The vacancy lists the skills that the applicant must possess, as well as describes the proposed conditions. Be prepared that a novice IT specialist will likely not be accepted as a remote employee. The employer must ensure your competence, and for this – personally observe the newcomer.

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