Complex programming languages ​​and their features

Complex programming languages ​​are highly efficient tools for writing software and developing applications. It takes a lot of time to master them, so no one will make you a programmer in a two-week course.

Note that complexity is still a relative concept. One or another language from the list can be given easily. Others will take a little longer to master fully. Here, as they say, there would be a desire.

Popular programming languages ​​in 2023

The IT industry is developing very quickly. Computers are used in almost all areas of human life. Consequently, programmers are becoming more and more in-demand specialists. Let’s list the programming languages ​​for which there is the greatest demand in 2023:

  • C. _ It is used in Microsoft, Oracle, and Apple. The portability feature allows us to call this language one of the best. It can be used in both operating and internal systems. This language allows you to develop applications and software. Also, C is used by testers.
  • Java. It is a mobile and scalable language that is used in web development. Java is also used for software development and testing.
  • Python. This language is becoming more and more popular every year. Moreover, this trend has been maintained for 15 years. Python is used in machine learning, robotics creation, and data analysis. Plus, this language is used in the development of artificial intelligence.
  • C++ . This language is object-oriented. Very popular among game developers. In addition, C++ is used to create database engines and financial platforms.
  • C#. It is often used to create games and applications.
  • Visual Basic. Another representative of object-oriented programming languages. At the moment, its popularity has declined. However, Visual Basic is often used to develop desktop applications and software on OC Windows. This language is also used to create websites and services.
  • JavaScript. It is used to develop interactive web pages and create dynamics on the resource page. Together with this language, layout tools are used: HTML and CSS.
  • R. _ Another popular language used for statistical data analysis, graphical presentation, business intelligence, and Big Data.
  • PHP. This language is a useful tool for backend development. In addition, PHP is used in the WordPress CMS.
  • Swift. This language was developed by Apple in 2014. Swift is used to creating applications based on IOS, OS X, watchOS, and tvOS.

Rating of the most difficult programming languages

Consider the ten most difficult programming languages ​​in the world.


The creator of this language is Guido van Rossum. In the mid-eighties, he worked on an educational project to develop the ABC language for beginners in programming. At some point, Guido focused on language design and started building Python. As a result, he developed a formal sign system that was very different from other languages.

For example, indentation has a special meaning in Python. Initially, many thought that this would complicate the application of the language. However, this nuance has become one of the reasons for the popularity of Python. You will be able to develop useful programs even if you have yet to take a class in CS. This language is considered high-level, so the programmer does not need to deal with low-level aspects of programming (such as memory management).


The official name of this language is Embarcadero Delphi. This formal sign system belongs to proprietary languages. It is included in the Software Development Kit (SDK) from Embarcadero Technologies. Delphi is often used to develop Windows-based applications, but it can also be used in other areas. For example, to create desktop, mobile, web, and console applications that run on OS X, iOS, and Android operating systems.

Delphi is included in the professional Integrated Development Environment (IDE) RAD Studio and is distributed with C++Builder.


C++ is a programming language that was created at AT&T Bell Laboratories in the early eighties. Since then, several new features have been added to it. The official developer is Bjorn Stroustrup.

C++ was designed to combine efficiency and conciseness with the object-oriented programming capability of SIMULA-67. To develop a universal standard for this language and to avoid ambiguities in modern C++ compilers and translators, the ANSI-C++ committee (X3J16) was formed.

C++ is a superset of the C language. They are very similar in their syntax, but there are many important differences between them. C++ is a much more complex language.


The capabilities of this language were first demonstrated in 2014 at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference. Swift started building in 2010. The development team included Chris Lattner, Doug Gregor, John McCall, Ted Kremenek, and Joe Groff of Apple. The concept of Swift has a lot in common with Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C#, CLU, and other languages.

Swift 1.0 is the first version of this formal sign system. At WWDC 2015, the Swift 2 update was presented. Version 2.2 was different because it was generated open source under the Apache License 2.0 on December 3, 2015, for the Apple and Linux platforms.


The C language was created in 1972 at AT&T. The developer was Dennis Ritchie. The original idea was to fix the bugs and problems of other languages ​​(B, BCPL, etc.) but keep their useful features. At the same time, C was intended for use on OS UNIX. At the moment, this programming language is one of the most popular.


It is a special programming language for managing data in a relational database (RDBMS). In addition, it is used to process data in the Relational Data Flow Management System (RDSMS). When creating this language, relational calculus and relational algebra were used. The list of basic elements of SQL includes:

  • Data definition language.
  • Data Manipulation Language.
  • Data management language.

SQL is used to insert data, update, query, delete, and control access to data. In addition, this programming language is used to modify and create circuits.


Haskell is a typed and statistically polymorphically typed language. Thus, it is very different from other formal sign systems.

The language is named after Haskell Brooks Curry. This specialist worked in mathematical logic and developed the main provisions, due to which functional languages ​​were developed.

The development of Haskell began thanks to a committee at the Conference on Functional Programming Languages ​​and Computer Architecture (FPCA ’87). This event was held in Portland. The specialists decided that it is necessary to introduce a common standard for functional PLs.


This language was developed in September 1995 by programmer Brendan Eich of Netscape Communications Corporation. The specialist created a scripting language in just ten days. At that time, it was called Mocha. The programmer developed it for Netscape Navigator. Since then, this language has been called LiveScript and JavaScript (from Netscape Java). They wanted to connect this language to Java, which was common then.


This is a group of low-level programming languages. They are distinguished by a strong correspondence between the instructions of a formally signed system and architectures in machine code. Moreover, each assembly language is designed to work with a specific computer architecture. They are pretty difficult programming languages ​​to learn.


Malbolge is an esoteric programming language. It was named in honor of the eighth circle of hell, Dante. The developer was Ben Olmsted. The language was released in 1998.

Malbolge was created specifically to make the software development process more difficult. For example, the phrase “Hello world!” was written using the program for two years.

Lou Schaeffer continued to work on the language. When the original site went down, the specialist kept the original interpreter and specification, researched the language’s cryptanalysis, and developed a program to copy input to its output. Lu created a general strategy for writing programs in Malbolge.

This language is almost impossible to use. It is so complex that writing a serious program on it is unrealistic.

Exotic programming languages

  • Brainfuck

One of the most difficult AP. It was developed in 1993. The language consists of eight commands, each indicated by a separate character. Working with Brainfuck requires a high level of abstract thinking. It is easier to write a program with errors on it. Brainfuck was originally designed as a language with a minimal compiler.

  • Ok!

This formal sign system is based on the Brainfuck language. It contains two commands: “Ook” and “Ook?”. It is very difficult to write a program in this language without errors. The code is very long and cumbersome.

  • Cow

It is based on the language that is used in the Turing machine. Contains 12 teams.

  • Intercal

It was released in 1972. The developers wanted to create the worst programming language ever. It includes non-standard operators (Read out, Ignore, Please, Forget, etc.). The language is characterized by complex syntax and verbose commands.

A programmer must use the Please statement exactly four times when writing code. Otherwise, the program will not run.

  • White space

It cannot contain anything other than spaces, tabs, and newlines.

There are many programming languages, each of which has its level of complexity. The choice of a formal sign system depends on the tasks that the developer needs to perform. All of the above languages ​​have their advantages and disadvantages.

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